At 1.8 million years old, they are now believed to be a subspecies of Homo erectus and not a separate species of Homo.These fossils represent the earliest known human presence in the Caucasus.
The castle was controlled by the House of Orbeliani.
Extensive archaeological studies began in the area in 1936 and continued in the 1960s.
Beyond a rich collection of ancient and medieval artifacts and the ruins of various buildings and structures, unique remains of prehistoric animals and humans have been unearthed.
Some of the animal bones were identified by the Georgian paleontologist A.
Vekua with the teeth of the extinct rhino Dicerorhinus etruscus etruscus in 1983.
This species dates back presumably to the early Pleistocene epoch.The discovery of primitive stone tools in 1984 led to increasing interest to the archaeological site.In 1991, a team of Georgian scholars was joined by the German archaeologists from Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum, and later the U. Early human (or hominin) fossils, originally named Homo georgicus and now considered Homo erectus georgicus, were found at Dmanisi between 19.) is a townlet and archaeological site in the Kvemo Kartli region of Georgia approximately 93 km southwest of the nation’s capital Tbilisi in the river valley of Mashavera.The hominin site is the earliest of its kind outside of Africa, dating back to 1.81 Ma.The town of Dmanisi is first mentioned in the 9th century as a possession of the Arab emirate of Tbilisi, though the area had been settled since the Early Bronze Age.