Chiquinha Gonzaga was the first pianist of "choro" et author of the first carnival march, "Ó Abre Alas "(1899).
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Chiquinha Gonzaga was born in Rio de Janeiro, from a mulatto mother and a wealthy white father – after she was born her father became a marshal.
Her godfather was Luís Alves de Lima e Silva, Duke of Caxias.
For her mother, a mestizo and poor woman, the birth of Chiquinha was a very difficult, in part because of the risk that the father would not recognize the paternity her daughter.
Indeed, José Basileu, the military promising career, from a wealthy family, suffered from the pressure of his parents, who were against his marriage with Rosa.
Even with all these social changes, manners were not so advanced.
For the young Chiquinha, nothing had changed, she always obeyed the orders of her father.
In 1863, at age 16, Francisca married Jacinto Ribeiro do Amaral, a young man of 24, official of the Imperial Navy.
Jacinto do Amareal was chosen by her father to marry Chiquinha even though she had expressed her disagreement with this arranged marriage.
Despite these disagreements, he accepted the child as his daughter and married.
Like all girls of a military family in the 19th century, Chiquinha Gonzaga was very well educated.
Her father, very strict with her education,prepared her for a successful future: a good marriage that would raise her to the category of "lady".